Resources for learning more

This post is for those of you who want to dive further into reading more about different topics related to learning and teaching clinical reasoning. Below we share the references for the literature we have spent hours after hours reading and making notes on and finally based different aspects of this project on. It is difficult to specifically classify some of the references as they cover a range of topics, but we placed them under the subheading we mostly used them for. So it’s probably worth browsing through all references in case. We hope this is helpful!

Clinical reasoning

  • Echternach JL, Rothstein JM: Hypothesis-oriented algorithms. Phys Ther. 1989;69:559-64.
  • Edwards I, Jones M, Carr J, Braunack-Mayer A, Jensen G. Clinical reasoning strategies in physical therapy. Phys Ther. 2004;84:312-35.
  • Engelbert R, Wittink H. Klinisch redeneren volgens de HOAC II (eng. Clinical reasoning with the HOAC II). Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum; 2010.
  • Escorpizo R, Stucki G, Cieza A, Davis K, Stumbo T, Riddle DL. Creating an interface between the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and physical therapist practice. Phys Ther. 2010;90:1053-63.
  • Higgs J, Jones M. Clinical decision making and multiple problem spaces. In: Higgs J, Jones MA, Loftus S, Christensen N. Clinical reaoning in health professions. Amsterdam: Elsevier;2008. p. 4-19.
  • Interactive Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Alexandria: American Physical Therapy Association; 2003.
  • Kesselring J, Coenen M, Cieza A, Thompson A, Kostanjsek N, Stucki G. Developing the ICF Core Sets for multiple sclerosis to specify functioning. Mult Scler. 2008;14:252-4.
  • Norman G. Research in clinical reasoning: past history and current trends. Med Educ. 2005;39:418-27.
  • Rauch A, Cieza A, Stucki G. How to apply the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for rehabilitation management in clinical practice. Eur J Phys Rehabil. 2008;44(3):329-42.
  • Rauch A, Escorpizo R, Riddle D, Eriks-Hoogland I, Stucki G, Cieza A. Using a case report of a patient with spinal cord injury to illustrate the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health during multidisciplinary patient management. Phys Ther. 2010;90(7):1039-52.
  • Riddle DL, Rothstein JM, Echternach JL. Application of the HOAC II: an episode of care for a patient with low back pain. Phys Ther. 2003;83:471-85.
  • Rothstein JM, Echternach JL. Hypothesis-Oriented Algorithm for Clinicians: a method for evaluation and treatment planning.1986;66(9):1388-94.
  • Rothstein JM, Echternach JL, Riddle DL. The Hypothesis-Oriented Algorithm for Clinicians II (HOAC II): a guide for patient management. Phys Ther. 2003;83(5):455-70.
  • Schenkman M, Deutsch JE, Gill-Body KM. An integrated framework for decision making in neurologic physical therapist practice. Phys Ther. 2006;86:1681-702.
  • Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott MH. Motor control: translating research into clinical practice. 4th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.
  • Steiner WA, Ryser L, Huber E, Uebelhart D, Aeschlimann A, Stucki G. Use of the ICF model as a clinical problem-solving tool in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. Phys Ther. 2002;82:1098-107.
  • Thoomes EJ, Schmitt MS. Practical use of the HOAC II for clinical decision making and subsequent therapeutic interventions in an elite athlete with low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41(2):108-17.

Expert practice

  • Black LL, Jensen GM, Mostrom E, Perkins J, Ritzline PD et al. The first year of practice: an investigation of the professional learning and development of promising novice physical therapists. Phys Ther. 2010;90(12):1758-73.
  • Jensen GM, Gwyer J, Shepard KF, Hack LM. Expert practice in physical therapy. Phys Ther. 2000;80:28-43.
  • Resnik L, Jensen GM. Using clinical outcomes to explore the theory of expert practice in physical therapy. Phys Ther. 2003;83:1090-106.

Teaching clinical reasoning

  • Atkinson HL, Nixon-Cave K. A tool for clinical reasoning and reflection using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework and patient management model. Phys Ther. 2011;91:416-30.
  • Kassirer JP. Teaching clinical reasoning: case-based and coached. Acad Med. 2010;85(7):1118-24.
  • Rencic J. Twelve tips for teaching expertise in clinical reasoning. Med Teach. 2011:1-6.


  • Clarke A, Lewis D, Cole I, Ringrose L. A strategic approach to developing e-learning capability for healthcare. Health Info Libr J. 2005;22(Suppl 2):33-41.
  • Fadel C, Lemke C. Multimodal learning through media: what the research says [online]. San Jose: Cisco Systems Inc; c 2008 [last update March 2011; cited 2011 Nov. 1]. URL:
  • Grant J. Using open and distance learning to develop clinical reasoning skills. In: Higgs J, Jones MA, Loftus S, Christensen N. Clinical reasoning in health professions. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2008. p. 441-9.
  • Irby M, Wilkerson L. Educational innovations in academic medicine and environmental trends. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:370-6.
  • Ryan G, Dolling T, Barnet S. Supporting the problem-based learning process in the clinical years: evaluation of an online Clinical Reasoning Guide. Med Educ. 2004;38(6):638-45.
  • Woltering V, Herrler A, Spitzer K, Spreckelsen C. Blended learning positively affects students’ satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2009;14(5):725-38.

Communication & documentation

  • Harman K, Bassett R, Fenety A, Hoens A. ‘I think it, but don’t often write it’: the barriers to charting in private practice. Physiother Can. 2009;61:252-8.
  • Jette AM. Toward a common language for function, disability, and health. Phys Ther. 2006:86:726-34.
  • Jette AM. Toward a common language of disablement. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009;64(11):1165-8.
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